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History & Connection with Summer Session

The (MS)² Program History

1975  Robert Frehse, The Hearst Foundations; Jerry Foster, a PA faculty member; and Dr. Theodore R. Sizer, Headmaster of Phillips Academy, meet to discuss an idea. The Hearst Foundations launch (MS)² with a $25,000 grant. 
1976 Dick Lux, a PA faculty member, chairs the (MS)2 Curriculum Development Committee. John J. Jackson is hired as the first program leader.
1977 First (MS)² class is convened with 26 participants from Chicago, Newark, Philadelphia and Cleveland, under Acting Director Edward McPherson.
1978 Student population increases from 26 to 47, and the number of cities increases from four to eight.
1979 Eight students comprise the first graduation class. Elwin Sykes becomes the Director of (MS)².
1980 College Counseling becomes a part of third-year curriculum. Two hours of English composition are added to the curriculum.
1981 Conversations with visiting scholars become an integral component of the program. Frank Eccles becomes acting director of (MS)² from September 1980-June 1981.
1982 For the first time, an (MS)² graduate returns to become a teaching assistant. Victor Young becomes director of (MS)².
1983 Articles continue to feature (MS)² in local and national media.
1984 Dr. Kenneth Manning, noted professor of history of science at MIT, addresses (MS)² students. Victor Young meets with Bernard Charles of the Carnegie Corporation of New York and receives $180,000 to expand (MS)² by 50 percent between 1984-86.
1985 Largest-to-date (47) first-year class enters program.
1986 The total program is expanded to 130 students.
1987 Three (MS)² graduates return as teaching assistants. Nat Smith becomes acting director of (MS)² for academic year 1987-88.
1988 Kevin Reed is chosen as the Summer Session Joseph W. Martin Scholar. Fort Worth Independent School District establishes a program, HS+, modeled after (MS)². Walter A. Sherrill is named director of (MS)².
1989 (MS)² Alumni Association holds its first meeting. (MS)² is featured on WCVB, Channel 5, Boston. Trustees agree to establish an endowment for the program; the Hearst Foundation kicks-off the endowment campaign with a gift of $100,000.
1990 Thirty-nine percent of first-year scholars are enrolled in second-year math courses. Students are introduced to a new math course, Fractals, and a new marine biology course, OCEANS. The Alumni Association, through a challenge grant, raises $30,000 for the program. The Cultural Sharing Program begins.
1991 Course evaluations by students are introduced. Writing becomes the major focus of the English curriculum.
1992 (MS)² celebrates its 15th anniversary with Theodore R. Sizer as guest speaker. Chuck Nolan '80, Naval Academy '85, is the graduation speaker.
1993 The Richard M. Walker annual lecture is established to bring a scientist or mathematician of color to address our community. Kris Douglas '80 is the graduation speaker.
1994 Graphing calculators are introduced into the mathematics courses. Robert Devaney, author of the third-year fractals text, speaks to the students. Survey of graduates of the (MS)² classes from 1979-93 shows that 79 percent of the respondents are in a math- or science-related field or college major.
1995  Edith Walker is named director of (MS)². Discrete Mathematics replaces Fractals as the standard third-year math course for two-thirds of the students; the most advanced third-year students take calculus.
1996  The 20th anniversary of (MS)² is observed with a Founders Day celebration July 10. Past and current heads of school Theodore R. Sizer, Donald W. McNemar and Barbara Landis Chase are present. Alumni, faculty emeriti and donors join current students and faculty. The (MS)² endowment campaign meets its goal of $2,000,000 with the help of a $500,000 double-match challenge grant from The Sperry Fund.
1997  Three (MS)² alumnae return as teaching assistants; two alumni (Chris Cleveland '80 and Felimon Gurule '92) are Wednesday Forum speakers; and Tammy Dowley-Blackman '85 is the graduation speaker.
1998  Third-year students publish the first (MS)² yearbook.
1999  J. Peter Watt is named interim director of (MS)². Class of 1989 holds its 10th reunion. Major updating of (MS)² alumni records begun.
2000  Temba T. Maqubela is named director of (MS)², effective Jan. 1, 2001. 
2001 The Planning Committee is formed to oversee celebrating the 25th anniversary of (MS)² in 2001-02. The most advanced first-year students study chemistry instead of biology.
2002 Head of School Barbara Chase and Director Temba Maqubela host the Silver Jubilee of (MS)². Former Headmaster Theodore Sizer, Director Emeritus Elwin Sykes and Trustee Emeritus Rick Beinecke are guest speakers. Former Headmaster Donald W. McNemar moderates a panel on (MS)², titled "An Agent for Change." The panel consists of (MS)² alumni joined by renowned Washington, D.C., science teacher Douglas Tyson. The graduation speaker is Lynn Harth Baldwin '80.
2003 Jacquelyn Begay, a Native American, is chosen as the third Walter A. Sherrill Scholar. The first Walter Sherrill Scholar, Sophina Manhimer '00, joins four other alumni to serve as a teaching assistant in mathematics.

Computer science is added to the curriculum. For the first time, 12 third-year students take four courses, adding the new computer science course to physics, mathematics and college counseling.
2004 Temba Maqubela is appointed Phillips Academy's dean of faculty. Elwin Sykes becomes interim director of (MS)².
2005 Fernando Alonso is appointed director of (MS)² on June 20, 2005.
 2009 Fernando Alonso is appointed director of Summer Session and Outreach Programs, Elizabeth Washburn becomes interim director of (MS)2.
 2010 Dianne Cruz is appointed director of (MS)2. 
 2011 First (MS)2 Advisory Council is established.